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Tips dan Trik Menghadapi Tes Group Discussion (GD) IUP UGM

Group Discussion atau DiskusiKelompok merupakan suatu proses pengumpulan informasi mengenai suatu masalah tertentu yang sangat spesifik. Karakteristik Diskusi Kelompok adalah jumlah peserta Diskusi terbatas (biasanya terdiri dari 4 orang dalam satu kelompok, dengan tujuan agar setiap peserta mendapat kesempatan untuk berbicara, mengemukakan pendapat dan terlibat aktif dalam diskusi. Setiap anggota kelompok akan diberikan waktu 15 menit untuk menyusun suatu argument yang menyatakan posisinya dalam topik tersebut. 

Contoh:
Topic: Pemilu harusnya diwajibkan bukan dibuat suatu hak
Argument: saya percaya bahwa, harusnya pemilu diwajibkan……

Setelah itu sesi diskusi akan dibuka,setiap anggota kelompok harus mengemukakan pendapatnya dan juga harus menanggapi pendapat dari anggota diskusi lainnya, waktu sesi ini adalah 20 menit. 

Dalam tes yang dilakukan terdapat beberapa poin penilaian yang dilihat dari pengawas. Berikut beberapa poin penilaiannya.

1.      Inisiatif
Adanya inisiatif peserta dalam FGD menunjukkan bahwa peserta memiliki jiwa leadership dan confidence yang baik. Peserta yang mampu membuka diskusi, memberikan solusi, dan mengingatkan masalah waktu akan mendapatkan poin lebih dari pengawas.

2.      Ide atau Solusi
3.      Semakin peserta dapat menuangkan ide dan solusi yang relevan maka anda boleh berharap untuk mendapat poin lebih dari pengawas. Jadi jangan sia-siakan kertas kosong yang dibagikan oleh pengawas, tulis saja ide atau solusi yang dapat anda lakukan dengan relevan.

4.      Sampaikan ide dan solusi
Sampaikan ide dan solusi anda terhadap maslah yang ada dalam kertas bacaan, jika perlu anda dapat menjelaskan melalui papan tulis seperti anda sedang berpresentasi. Karena pengawas akan melihat bagaimana anda menyampaikan ide dan solusi dalam proses diskusi.

5.      Mampu mengarahkan diskusi
Ketika anda mampu membuat kelompok diskusi anda menjadi hidup, sudah pasti pengawas memberikan poin lebih kepada anda. Namun dalam mengarahkannya jangan terlalu memaksakan kehendak, karena dalam kelompok tidak hanya ada ide anda saja, lihat dan perhatikan jiga ide-ide peserta lainnya.

6.      Kepedulian
Jika dirasa anda belum dapat melakukan poin ke-empat, ada baiknya anda membantu peserta lain yang mungkin terlihat tidak aktif atau belum menyampaikan pendapatnya.

Setelah kita mengetahui poin penilaian dalam tes GD, berikut ini merupakan beberapa tips dan trik yang dapat anda lakukan agar lolos mengikuti tes GD.

a)      Tulis secara jelas dan singkat tentang ide, solusi dan masalah yang anda temukan dalam kertas bacaan. Untuk lebih mudah meringkasnya anda dapat menggunakan format penulisan seperti berikut ini.
IDENTIFIKASI SITUASI DAN MASALAH
a. …..
b. …..
c. …..
SOLUSI TERHADAP PERMASALAHAN
a. ….
b. ….
c. …

Namun usahakan anda tetap bisa relevan dalam memberikan pendapat sesuai dengan situasi yang ada dan jangan berlebihan.

b)      Jika dirasa para peserta sudah selesai membaca dan diskusi sudah dimulai, anda dapat membuka diskusi tersbut terlebih dahulu karena hal tersebut juga akan menambah poin positif untuk anda.
c)      Sampaikan pendapat dengan bertanya. Jika kebanyakan peserta memberikan pendapatnya dengan mengatakan “menurut pendapat saya….” atau “Pandangan saya tentang masalah ini …”. anda dapat menggantikan dengan “Bagaimana menurut teman-teman jika masalah ini …”. Cara tersebut juga merupakan poin untuk anda, karena anda dapat membuat para peserta memberikan penyanggahan atas pendapat anda dan membuat suasana diskusi menjadi lebih hidup.
d)     Jika ada pendapat peserta lain yang dirasa tidak sepandangan dengan anda, anda dapat melakuan debatnamun tetap elegan . Sampaikan pendapat anda secara smart dan komprehensfi, dan tunjukan bahwa pendapatnya baik tapi pendapat anda lebih baik.
e)      Jika waktu diskusi telah habis, anda dapat mengingatkan kepada peserta lain. Jika dalam diskusi tersebut belum ada kesimpulan, maka anda dapat mengarahkan mereka pada sebuah kesimpulan.
f)       Be confident, smart dan meyakinkan. Untuk melakukan semua itu anda harus berpenampilan yang baik dan memiliki wawasan yang luas yang berhubungan dengan jurusan yang anda minati.




Contoh Soal dan Pembahasan Grammar and Structure pada Test Toefl ITP

Grammar and Written Expression pada tes TOEFL ITP bertujuan untuk menguji kemampuan Anda dalam mengidentifikasi bahasa Inggris tulis yang digunakan dalam situasi formal (formal written English). Banyak ekspresi-ekspresi bahasa Inggris yang bisa diterima dalam komunikasi lisan, namun tidak bisa diterima atau tidak lazim digunakan dalam komunikasi tulis, apalagi yang bersifat formal.
Soal Structure and Written Expression terdiri dari dua bagian, struktur kalimat (structure) dan ekspresi bahasa Inggris tulis (written expression). Structure and Written Expression terdiri dari 40 soal, terdiri dari 15 soal structure (nomor 1 sampai dengan 15) dan 25 soal untuk written expression (nomor 16 sampai dengan 40). Waktu untuk mengerjakan 40 soal ini adalah 25 menit.

Pada bagian Structure Anda diharuskan mencari jawaban yang benar untuk melengkapi kalimat yang dikosongkan. Sedangkan pada bagian Written Expression, Anda diharuskan mencari jawaban yang salah dari kalimat yang digarisbawahi. Berikut ini bentuk contoh soal tes TOEFL Structure and Written Expression.


1. _____ the demands of aerospace, medicine, and agriculture, aengineers, are creating exotic new metallic substances.
    (A) Meet
    (B) Being met are
    (C) To meet
    (D) They are meeting

2. _______ James A. Bland, “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny” was adopted is the state song of Virginia in 1940.
    (A) Was written b
    (B) His writing was
    (C) He wrote the
    (D) Written by

3. Mary Garden, ______ the early 1900’s was considered one of the best singing actresses of her time.
    (A) a soprano was popular
    (B) in a popular soprano
    (C) was a popular soprano
    (D) a popular soprano in

4. In the realm of psychological theory Margaret F. Washburn was a dualist _____ that motor phenomena have an essential role in psychology.
    (A) who she believed
    (B) who believed
    (C) believed
    (D) who did she believe

A. Contoh Soal TOEFL Written Expression

16. On Ellesmere Island in the Arctic one fossil forest consist of a nearly hundred
                                                                                        A                 B
      large stumps scattered on an exposed coal bed.
                                C                       D

17. The surface conditions on the planet Mars are the more like the Earth’s than are
                                A                                                    B                                C
       those of any other planet in the solar system.
                               D

18. The midnight sun is a phenomenon in which the Sun visible remains in the sky
                                   A                                                              B                   C
       for twenty-four hours or longer.
                                               D 

19. The Humber River and its valley form a major salmon-fishing, lumbering, hunting,
                                           A              B         C
       and farmer region in western Newfoundland, Canada.
                 D

Pembahasan Soal dan Jawaban

A. Structure
1. Jawab            : (C) To meet
    Keyword        : the demands of aerospace
    Pembahasan : Pola infinitive phrase: to infinitive + object of to infinitive
                             Kalimat tersebut menyatakan tujuan atau maksud. Maka dibutuhkan to infinitive phrase.
                             Sehingg pilihan phrase yang tepat untuk mengisi rumpang tersebut adalah to meet.

2. Jawab              : (D) Written by
    Keyword         : James A. Bland
    Pembahasan  : Kalimat di atas membutuhkan Adjective Phrase untuk menerangkan kata benda “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny”.
                              Frasa ajektif yang paling tepat adalah Written by. Mengapa disebut frasa ajektif, karea past participle (v3) yang
                              tidak ditemani bentuk be atau have adalah sebuah ajektif.

3. Jawab            : (D) a popular soprano in
    Keyword        : Mary Garden
    Pembahasan : Kalimat pada soal membutuhkan Appositive Phrase. Mary Garden dan appositive phrase (a popular soprano)
                              memiliki makna yang sama. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah a popular soprano in.

4. Jawab            : (B) Who believed
    Keyword        : a dualist
    Pembahasan : Pola adjective clause : (Conj. + S + V).
                              Untuk menerangkan kata benda a dualist maka klausa yang tepat adalah who believed.

B. Written Expression.
16. Jawab           : (B) a nearly
      Keyword       : hundred large stumps
      Pembahasan : a nearly -> nearly
                               Kata “a nearly” tidak memerlukan indefinite article/determiner “a”, karena kata benda stumps adalah plural.

17. Jawab            : (B) The more
      Keyword        : the planet Mars
      Pembahasan : the more -> more
                               Pola comparative: more ___ than ___
                               Maka seharusnya tidak perlu definite article “the” tapi cukup “more” saja.

18. Jawab            : (B) visible remains
      Keyword        : the sun
      Pembahasan : visible remains -> remains visible
                               Kata the sun dalam anak kalimat di atas memerlukan predicate bukan noun phrase (visible remains).
                               Yang tepat seharusnya remains visible.

19. Jawab            : (D) farmer
      Keyword        : and
      Pembahasan : farmer -> farming
                               Konjungsi and digunakan untuk menghubungkan kelas kata yang sederajat. Karena sebelum “and” bentuk
                               katanya adalah gerund maka kata farmer seharusnya diubah dalam bentuk gerund juga yaitu farming.

Contoh Soal Dan Pembahasan Reading Comprehension Pada Tes Toefl ITP

Reading Comprehension pada tes Toefl ITP  bertujuan untuk menguji kemampuan Anda dalam memahami, menginterprestasikan, dan menganalisa teks atau bacaan mengenai berbagai macam topik. Bagian ini terdiri dari empat sampai enam teks/bacaan kira-kira 200 - 450 kata. Setiap teks biasanya diikuti oleh 7-12 pertanyaan. Jumlah soal untuk Reading Comprehension adalah 50 soal. Topik bacaan biasanya berkaitan dengan masalah-masalah akademik, terutama textbook mengenai Biologi, Fisika, Geografi, Sejarah Amerika, Biografi, Ekonomi, Ilmu-ilmu Sosial, dan Seni.

Jenis Pertanyaan
Untuk menjawab pertanyaan bagian Reading Comprehension ini, memahami jenis pertanyaan sebagai persiapan menghadapi tes TOEFL sangatlah penting. Berikut ini berbagai tipe pertanyaan yang sering muncul dalam tes TOEFL.

1. Pertanyaan tentang topik atau tema.
2. Topik utama merupakan subjek utama bacaan, tentang apa bacaan itu.
3. Topik atau tema bisa berupa: inti isi tulisan (the text is about) atau judul tulisan (title).
Contoh Soal Tes TOEFL Bagian Reading Comprehension

Reading Comprehension
Time: Approximately 55 Minutes
50 Questions

DIRECTIONS
In this section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by several questions about it. For questions 1-50, you are to choose the one best answer, (A), (B), (C), or (D), to each question. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.

READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE:
The railroad was not the first institution to impose regularity on society, or to draw attention to the importance of precise timekeeping. For as long as merchants have set out their wares at daybreak and communal festivities have been celebrated, people have been in rough agreement with their neighbors as to the time of day. The value of this tradition is today more apparent than ever. Were it not for public acceptance of a single yardstick of time, social life would be unbearably chaotic: the massive daily transfers of goods, services, and information would proceed in fits and starts; the very fabric of modem society would begin to unravel.

Example I
What is the main idea of the passage? 
(A) In modem society we must make more time for our neighbors.
(B) The traditions of society are timeless.
(C) An accepted way of measuring time is essential for the smooth functioning of society.
(D) Society judges people by the times at which they conduct certain activities.

The main idea of the passage is that societies need to agree about how time is to be measured in order to function smoothly. Therefore, you should choose (C).

Example II
In line 4, the phrase “this tradition” refers to....
(A) the practice of starting the business day at dawn
(B) friendly relations between neighbors
(C) the railroad’s reliance on time schedules
(D) people’s agreement on the measurement of time

The phrase “this tradition” refers to the preceding clause, “people have been in rough agreement with their neighbors as to the time of day.” Therefore, you should choose (D).
Now begin work on the questions.

Questions 1-5
A distinctively American architecture began with Frank Lloyd Wright, who had taken to heart the admonition that form should follow function and who thought of buildings not as separate architectural entities but as parts of an organic whole that included the land, the community, and the society. In a very real way the houses of colonial New England and some of the southern plantations had been functional, but Wright was the first architect to make functionalism the authoritative principle for public as well as for domestic buildings. As early as 1906 he built the Unity Temple in Oak Park, Illinois, the first of those churches that did so much to revolutionize ecclesiastical architecture in the United States. Thereafter he turned his genius to such miscellaneous structures as houses, schools, office buildings, and factories, among them the famous Larkin Building in Buffalo, New York, and the Johnson Wax Company building in Racine, Wisconsin.

1. The phrase “taken to heart” in line 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
(A)  Taken seriously
(B)  Criticized
(C)  Memorized
(D)  Taken offence

2. In what way did Wright’s public buildings differ from most of those built by earlier architects?
(A)  They were built on a larger scale.
(B)  Their materials came from the southern United States.
(C)  They looked more like private homes.
(D)  Their designs were based on how they would be used.

3. The author mentions the Unity Temple because, it
(A)  was Wright’s first building
(B)  influenced the architecture of subsequent churches
(C)  demonstrated traditional ecclesiastical architecture
(D)  was the largest church Wright ever designed

4. The passage mentions that all of the following structures were built by Wright EXCEPT
(A)  factories
(B)  public buildings
(C)  offices
(D)  southern plantations

5. Which of the following statements best reflects one of Frank Lloyd Wright’s architectural principles?
(A)  Beautiful design is more important than utility.
(B)  Ecclesiastical architecture should be derived from traditional designs.
(C)  A building should fit into its surroundings.
(D)  The architecture of public buildings does not need to be revolutionary

Questions 6-16
There are two basic types of glaciers, those that flow outward in all directions with little regard for any underlying terrain and those that are confined by terrain to a particular path.
The first category of glaciers includes those massive blankets that cover whole continents, appropriately called ice sheets. There must be over 50,000 square kilometers of land covered with ice for the glacier to qualify as an ice sheet. When portions of an ice sheet spread out over the ocean, they form ice shelves.
About 20,000 years ago the Cordilleran Ice Sheet covered nearly all the mountains in southern Alaska, western Canada, and the western United States. It was about 3 kilometers deep at its thickest point in northern Alberta. Now there are only two sheets left on Earth, those covering Greenland and Antarctica.
Any domelike body of ice that also flows out in all directions but covers less than 50,000 square kilometers is called an ice cap. Although ice caps are rare nowadays, there are a number in northeastern Canada, on Baffin Island, and on the Queen Elizabeth Islands.
The second category of glaciers includes those of a variety of shapes and sizes generally called mountain or alpine glaciers. Mountain glaciers are typically identified by the landform that controls their flow. One form of mountain glacier that resembles an ice cap in that it flows outward in several directions is called an ice field. The difference between an ice field and an ice cap is subtle. Essentially, the flow of an ice field is somewhat controlled by surrounding terrain and thus does not have the domelike shape of a cap. There are several ice fields in the Wrangell. St. Elias, and Chugach mountains of Alaska and northern British Columbia.
Less spectacular than large ice fields are the most common types of mountain glaciers: the cirque and valley glaciers. Cirque glaciers are found in depressions in the surface of the land and have a characteristic circular shape. The ice of valley glaciers, bound by terrain, flows down valleys, curves around their corners, and falls over cliffs.

6. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A)  Where major glaciers are located
(B)  How glaciers shape the land
(C)  How glaciers are formed
(D)  The different kinds of glaciers

7. The word “massive” in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A)  huge
(B)  strange
(C)  cold
(D)  recent

8. It can be inferred that ice sheets are so named for which of the following reasons?
(A)  They are confined to mountain valleys.
(B)  They cover large areas of land.
(C)  They are thicker in some areas than in others.
(D)  They have a characteristic circular shape.

9. According to the passage, ice shelves can be found
(A)  covering an entire continent
(B)  buried within the mountains
(C)  spreading into the ocean
(D)  filling deep valleys

10. According to the passage, where was the Cordilleran Ice Sheet thickest?
(A)  Alaska
(B)  Greenland
(C)  Alberta
(D)  Antarctica

11. The word “rare” in line 12 is closest in meaning to
(A)  small
(B)  unusual
(C)  valuable
(D)  widespread

12. According to the passage (paragraph 5), ice fields resemble ice caps in which of the following ways?
(A)  Their shape
(B)  Their flow
(C)  Their texture
(D)  Their location

13. The word “it” in line 16 refers to
(A)  glacier
(B)  cap
(C)  difference
(D)  terrain

14. The word “subtle” in line 17 is closest in meaning to
(A)  slight
(B)  common
(C)  important
(D)  measurable

15. All of the following are alpine glaciers EXCEPT
(A)  cirque glaciers
(B)  ice caps
(C)  valley glaciers
(D)  ice fields

16. Which of the following types of glaciers does the author use to illustrate the two basic types of glaciers mentioned in line 1?
(A)  Ice fields and cirques
(B)  Cirques and alpine glaciers
(C)  Ice sheets and ice shelves
(D)  Ice sheets and mountain glaciers



Questions 17-26
Tools and hand bones excavated from the Swartkrans cave complex in South Africa suggest that a close relative of early humans known as Australopithecus robustus may have made and used primitive tools long before the species became extinct I million  Line years ago. It may even have made and used primitive tools long before humanity’s direct ancestor, Homo habilis, or “handy man,” began doing so. Homo habilis and its successor, Homo erectus, coexisted with Australopithecus robustus on the plains of South Africa for more than a million years.
The Swartkrans cave in South Africa has been under excavation since the 1940’s. The earliest fossil-containing layers of sedimentary rock in the cave date from about 1.9 million years ago and contain extensive remains of animals, primitive tools, and two or more species of apelike hominids. The key recent discovery involved bones from the hand of Australopithecus robustus, the first time such bones have been found.
The most important feature of the Australopithecus robustus hand was the pollical distal thumb tip, the last bone in the thumb. The bone had an attachment point for a “uniquely human” muscle, the flexor pollicis longus, that had previously been found only in more recent ancestors. That muscle gave Australopithecus robustutJ an opposable thumb, a feature that would allow them to grip objects, including tools. The researchers also found primitive bone and stone implements, especially digging tools, in the same layers of sediments.
Australopithecus robustus were more heavily built- more “robust” in anthropological terms-than their successors. They had broad faces, heavy jaws, and massive crushing and grinding teeth that were used for eating hard fruits, seeds, and fibrous underground plant parts. They walked upright, which would have allowed them to carry and use tools. Most experts had previously believed that Homo habilis were able to supplant Australopithecus robustus because the former’s ability to use tools gave them an innate superiority. The discovery that Australopithecus robustus also used tools means that researchers will have to seek other explanations for their extinction. Perhaps their reliance on naturally occurring plants led to their downfall as the climate became drier and cooler, or perhaps Homo habilis, with their bigger brains, were simply able tomake more sophisticated tools.
17. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that all of the following may have made and used tools EXCEPT.
(A)  Australopithecus robustus
(B)  Homo erectus
(C)  Homo habilis
(D)  Australopithecus robustus’ ancestors

18. The word “extensive” in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A)  numerous
(B)  exposed
(C)  ancient
(D)  valuable

19. Which of the following does the author mention as the most important recent discovery made in the Swartkrans cave?
(A)  Tools
(B)  Teeth
(C)  Plant fossils
(D)  Hand bones

20. What does the third paragraph ‘mainly discuss?
(A)  Features of Australopithecus robustus’ hand
(B)  Purposes for which hominids used tools
(C)  Methods used to determine the age of fossils
(D)  Significant plant fossils found in layers of sediment

21. It can be inferred from the description in the last paragraph that Australopithecus robustus was so named because of the species’
(A)  ancestors
(B)  thumb
(C)  build
(D)  diet

22. The word “supplant” in line 22 is closest in meaning to
(A)  exploit
(B)  displace
(C)  understand
(D)  imitate

23. The word “them” in line 23 refers to
(A)  tools
(B)  Homo habilis
(C)  Australopithecus robustus
(D)  experts

24. What does the author suggest is unclear about Australopithecus robustus?
(A)  Whether they used tools
(B)  What they most likely ate
(C)  Whether they are closely related to humans
(D)  Why they became extinct

25. The phrase “reliance on” in line 24 is closest in meaning to
(A)  impact on
(B)  dependence on
(C)  tolerance of
(D)  discovery of

26. Where in the passage does the author mention the materials from which tools were made?
(A)  Lines 7-9
(B)  Lines 12-13
(C)  Lines 15-17
(D)  Lines 21-23

Questions 27-38
The first two decades of this century were dominated by the microbe hunters. These hunters had tracked down one after another of the microbes responsible for the most dreaded scourges of many centuries: tuberculosis, cholera, diphtheria. But there, remained some terrible diseases for which no microbe could be incriminated: scurvy, pellagra, rickets, beriberi. Then it was discovered that these diseases were caused by the lack of vitamins, a trace substance in the diet. The diseases could be prevented or cured by consuming foods that contained the vitamins. And so in the decades of the 1920’s and 1930’s, nutrition became a science and the vitamin hunters replaced the microbe hunters.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s, biochemists strived to learn why each of the vitamins was essential for health. They discovered that key enzymes in metabolism depend on one or another of the vitamins as coenzymes to perform the chemistry that provides cells with energy for growth and function. Now, these enzyme hunters occupied center stage.
You are aware that the enzyme hunters have been replaced by a new breed of hunters who are tracking genes-the blueprints for each of the enzymes-and are discovering the defective genes that cause inherited diseases-diabetes, cystic fibrosis. These gene hunters, or genetic engineers, use recombinant DNA technology to identify and clone genes and introduce them into bacterial cells and plants to create factories for the massive production of hormones and vaccines for medicine and for better crops for agriculture. Biotechnology has become a multibillion-dollar industry.
In view of the inexorable progress in science, we can expect that the gene hunters will be replaced in the spotlight. When and by whom? Which kind of hunter will dominate the scene in the last decade of our waning century and in the early decades of the next? I wonder whether the hunters who will occupy the spotlight will be neurobiologists who apply the techniques of the enzyme and gene hunters to the functions of the brain: What to call them? The head hunters. I will return to them later.

27. What is the main topic of the passage?
(A)  The microbe hunters
(B)  The potential of genetic engineering
(C)  The progress of modem medical research
(D)  The discovery of enzymes

28. The word “which” in line 4 refers to
(A)  diseases
(B)  microbe
(C)  cholera
(D)  diphtheria

29. The word “incriminated” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A)  investigated
(B)  blamed
(C)  eliminated
(D)  produced

30. Which of the following can be cured by a change in diet?
(A)  Tuberculosis
(B)  Cholera
(C)  Cystic fibrosis
(D)  Pellagra

31. The word “strived” in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A)  failed
(B)  tried
(C)  experimented
(D)  studied

32. How do vitamins influence health?
(A)  They are necessary for some enzymes to function.
(B)  They protect the body from microbes.
(C)  They keep food from spoiling.
(D)  They are broken down by cells to produce energy.

33. In the third paragraph, the author compares cells that have been genetically altered by biotechnicians to
(A)  gardens
(B)  factories
(C)  hunters
(D)  spotlights

34. The word “them” in line 16 refers to
(A)  cells and plants
(B)  hormones
(C)  genes
(D)  gene hunters or genetic engineers

35. The phrase “occupy the spotlight” in line 22 is closest in meaning to
(A)  receive the most attention
(B)  go the furthest
(C)  conquer territory
(D)  lighten the load

36. The author implies that the most important medical research topic of the future will be
(A)  the functions of the brain
(B)  inherited diseases
(C)  the operation of vitamins
(D)  the structure of genes

37. Which of the following best describes the author’stone in the last paragraph of the passage?
(A)  Critical
(B)  Speculative
(C)  Appreciative
(D)  Emotional

38. With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?
(A)  The focus of medical research will change in the next two decades.
(B)  Medical breakthroughs often depend on luck.
(C)  Medical research throughout the twentieth century has been dominated by microbe hunters.
(D)  Most diseases are caused by defective genes.

Questions 39-50
In the mid-nineteenth century, the United States had tremendous natural resources that could be exploited in order to develop heavy industry. Most of the raw materials that are valuable in the manufacture of machinery, transportation facilities, and consumer goods lay ready to be worked into wealth. Iron, coal, and oil-the basic ingredients of industrial growth-were plentiful and needed only the application of technical expertise, organizational skill, and labor.
One crucial development in this movement toward industrialization was the growth of the railroads. The railway network expanded rapidly until the railroad map of the United States looked like a spider’s web, with the steel filaments connecting all important sources of raw materials, their places of manufacture, and their centers of distribution. The railroads contributed to the industrial growth not only by connecting these major centers, but also by themselves consuming enormous amounts of fuel, iron, and coal.
Many factors influenced emerging modes of production. For example, machine tools, the tools used to make goods, were steadily improved in the latter part of the nineteenth century-always with an eye to speedier production and lower unit costs. The products of the factories were rapidly absorbed by the growing cities that sheltered the workers and the distributors. The increased urban population was nourished by the increased farm production that, in turn, was made more productive by the use of the new farm machinery. American agricultural production kept up with the urban demand and still had surpluses for sale to the industrial centers of Europe.

The labor that ran the factories and built the railways was recruited in part from American farm areas where people were being displaced by farm machinery, in part from Asia, and in part from Europe. Europe now began to send tides of immigrants from eastern and southern Europe-most of whom were originally poor farmers but who settled in American industrial cities. The money to finance this tremendous expansion of the American economy still came from European financiers for the most part, but the Americans were approaching the day when their expansion could be financed in their own “money market.”

39. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A)  The history of railroads in the United States
(B)  The major United States industrial centers
(C)  Factors that affected industrialization in the United States
(D)  The role of agriculture in the nineteenth century

40. The word “ingredients” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A)  minerals
(B)  products
(C)  methods
(D)  components

41.Why does the author mention “a spider’s web” in line 8?
(A)  To emphasize the railroad’s consumption of oil and coal
(B)  To describe the complex structure of the railway system
(C)  To explain the problems brought on by railway expansion
(D)  To describe the difficulties involved in the distribution of raw materials

42. The word “themselves” in line 10 refers to
(A)  sources
(B)  centers
(C)  railroads
(D)  places

43. According to the passage, all of the following were true of railroads in the United States in the nineteenth century EXCEPT that
(A)  they connected important industrial cities
(B)  they were necessary to the industrialization process
(C)  they were expanded in a short time
(D)  they used relatively small quantities of natural resources

44. According to the passage, what was one effect of the improvement of machine tools?
(A)  Lower manufacturing costs
(B)  Better distribution of goods
(C)  More efficient transportation of natural resources
(D)  A reduction in industrial jobs

45. According to the passage, who were the biggest consumers of manufactured products?
(A)  Railway workers
(B)  Farmers
(C)  City dwellers
(D)  Europeans

46. The word “nourished” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
(A)  protected
(B)  fed
(C)  housed
(D)  paid

47. Which of the following is NOT true of United States farmers in the nineteenth century?
(A)  They lost some jobs because of mechanization.
(B)  They were unable to produce sufficient food for urban areas.
(C)  They raised their productivity by using new machinery.
(D)  They sold food to European countries.

48. According to the passage, what did the United States supply to European cities?
(A)  Machine tools
(B)  Money
(C)  Raw materials
(D)  Agricultural produce

49. The word “ran” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(A)  operated
(B)  hurried
(C)  constructed
(D)  owned

50. Where in the passage does the author mention the financial aspect of industrial expansion?
(A)  Lines 1-2
(B)  Lines 9-11
(C)  Lines 17-18
(D)  Lines 22-25



Pembahasan Soal Jawaban Reading Comprehension

Questions 1-5
A distinctively American architecture began with Frank Lloyd Wright, who had taken to heart the admonition that form should follow function and who thought of buildings not as separate architectural entities but as parts of an organic whole that included the land, the community, and the society. In a very real way the houses of colonial New England and some of the southern plantations had been functional, but Wright was the first architect to make functionalism the authoritative principle for public as well as for domestic buildings. As early as 1906 he built the Unity Temple in Oak Park, Illinois, the first of those churches that did so much to revolutionize ecclesiastical architecture in the United States. Thereafter he turned his genius to such miscellaneous structures as houses, schools, office buildings, and factories, among them the famous Larkin Building in Buffalo, New York, and the Johnson Wax Company building in Racine, Wisconsin.
Terjemahan
Arsitektur khas Amerika dimulai oleh Frank Lloyd Wright, yang telah dikenal bahwa bentuk harus mengikuti fungsi dan siapa yang berpikir bangunan tidak dipisahkan oleh arsitektur tetapi sebagai bagian keseluruhan organik yang termasuk tanah, masyarakat, dan kumpulan masyarakat. Dalam cara yang sangat nyata ,rumah-rumah kolonial New England dan beberapa perkebunan Selatan telah berfungsi, tetapi Wright adalah arsitek pertama yang membuat fungsionalisme prinsip otoritatif untuk umum juga domestik. Sejak 1906, ia membangun Persatuan Candi di Oak Park, Illinois, gereja-Gereja yang pertama dari yang melakukan begitu banyak merevolusi arsitektur gereja di Amerika Serikat. Kemudian menggunakan kejeniusannya untuk struktur yang berbeda-bedaseperti rumah, sekolah, bangunan perkantoran dan pabrik-pabrik, di antaranya Gedung Larkin terkenal di Buffalo, New York, dan perusahaan bangunan Johnson Wax di Racine, Wisconsin.

1. The phrase “taken to heart” in line 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
Jawab : A → Taken seriously
Pembahasan : Frasa taken to heart adalah bentuk ungkapan idiomatik dan memiliki arti “melakukan dengan sepenuh hati/serius”.

2. In what way did Wright’s public buildings differ from most of those built by earlier architects?
Jawab :  D → Their designs were based on how they would be used.
Pembahasan : Pada kalimat “…that form should follow function…” menunjukkan bahwa desain seharusnya berdasarkan pada fungsinya, untuk apa nantinya bangunan itu digunakan dan jawaban yang demikian ditemukan di pilihan D.

3. The author mentions the Unity Temple because, it
Jawab :  B → influenced the architecture of subsequent churches
Pembahasan :  Pada kalimat “…the first of those churches that did so much to revolutionize ecclesiastical architecture in the United States” menyatakan bahwa bangunan itu sangat mempengaruhi desain bangunan-bangunan selanjutnya. Jawaban yang mengandung ide serupa ada pada pilihan B.

4. The passage mentions that all of the following structures were built by Wright EXCEPT
Jawab :  D → southern plantations
Pembahasan :  Pada kalimat terakhir jelas bahwa offices, factories dan public building, termasuk churches adalah karyanya. Sedangkan South Plantations bukanlah hasil karyanya karena sudah didesain oleh orang terdahulu seperti yang disebutkan dalam bacaan.

5. Which of the following statements best reflects one of Frank Lloyd Wright’s architectural principles?
Jawab : C → A building should fit into its surroundings.
Pembahasan : Kalimat “…as parts of an organic whole that included the land, the community, and the society” menyatakan bahwa bangunan seharusnya dianggap sebagai bagian dari keseluruhan lingkungan dan masyarakat sekitarnya sehingga dengan kata lain bangunan tersebut harus sesuai dengan lingkungannya.

Questions 6-16
There are two basic types of glaciers, those that flow outward in all directions with little regard for any underlying terrain and those that are confined by terrain to a particular path.
The first category of glaciers includes those massive blankets that cover whole continents, appropriately called ice sheets. There must be over 50,000 square kilometers of land covered with ice for the glacier to qualify as an ice sheet. When portions of an ice sheet spread out over the ocean, they form ice shelves.
About 20,000 years ago the Cordilleran Ice Sheet covered nearly all the mountains in southern Alaska, western Canada, and the western United States. It was about 3 kilometers deep at its thickest point in northern Alberta. Now there are only two sheets left on Earth, those covering Greenland and Antarctica.
Any domelike body of ice that also flows out in all directions but covers less than 50,000 square kilometers is called an ice cap. Although ice caps are rare nowadays, there are a number in northeastern Canada, on Baffin Island, and on the Queen Elizabeth Islands.
The second category of glaciers includes those of a variety of shapes and sizes generally called mountain or alpine glaciers. Mountain glaciers are typically identified by the landform that controls their flow. One form of mountain glacier that resembles an ice cap in that it flows outward in several directions is called an ice field. The difference between an ice field and an ice cap is subtle. Essentially, the flow of an ice field is somewhat controlled by surrounding terrain and thus does not have the domelike shape of a cap. There are several ice fields in the Wrangell. St. Elias, and Chugach mountains of Alaska and northern British Columbia.
Less spectacular than large ice fields are the most common types of mountain glaciers: the cirque and valley glaciers. Cirque glaciers are found in depressions in the surface of the land and have a characteristic circular shape. The ice of valley glaciers, bound by terrain, flows down valleys, curves around their corners, and falls over cliffs.

Terjemahan
Ada dua jenis dasar gletser, yang mengalir ke luar dalam semua arah dengan kurang memperhatikan setiap daerah yang mendasari dan orang-orang yang dibatasi oleh medan untuk suatu jalan tertentu.
Kategori pertama gletser mencakup selimut yang besar yang mencakup seluruh benua, tepat disebut lembaran es. Harus ada lebih dari 50.000 kilometer persegi tanah yang ditutupi dengan es untuk gletser untuk memenuhi syarat sebagai lembar es.
Ketika bagian dari lembaran es menyebar samudera, mereka membentuk es rak. Sekitar 20.000 tahun yang lalu Cordilleran es lembar meliputi hampir semua pegunungan di Alaska Selatan, Kanada Barat dan barat Amerika Serikat. Itu adalah sekitar 3 kilometer yang mendalam pada titik tertebal di northern Alberta. Sekarang yang ada hanya dua lembar yang tersisa di dunia, orang-orang yang meliputi Greenland dan Antartika.
Badan domelike es yang juga mengalir keluar di segala penjuru tetapi mencakup kurang dari
50.000 kilometer persegi yang disebut topi es. Meskipun ice caps langka saat ini, ada beberapa di timur laut Kanada, Baffin Island, dan di Kepulauan Ratu Elizabeth.
Kategori kedua gletser termasuk orang-orang dari berbagai bentuk dan ukuran yang umumnya disebut gunung atau alpine gletser. Gunung gletser biasanya diidentifikasi dengan bentang alam yang mengendalikan aliran mereka. Salah satu bentuk gunung gletser yang menyerupai topi es yang mengalir ke luar dalam beberapa arah disebut medan es. Perbedaan antara medan es dan topi es halus. Pada dasarnya, arus medan es agak dikendalikan oleh daerah sekitarnya dan dengan demikian tidak memiliki bentuk seperti topi. Ada beberapa bidang es di Wrangell. St Elias, dan pegunungan Chugach di Alaska dan British Columbia Utara.
Kurang spektakuler daripada besar es bidang yang paling umum jenis gunung gletser: cirque dan lembah gletser. Cirque gletser ditemukan dalam depresi di permukaan tanah dan memiliki bentuk melingkar yang khas. Es lembah gletser, terikat oleh daerah, mengalir ke lembah, kurva yang disudut-sudut mereka dan jatuh diatas tebing.

6. What does the passage mainly discuss?
Jawab  : D → The different kinds of glaciers
Pembahasan : Ide pokok teks di atas dapat ditemukan pada paragraf pertama kalimat pertama yang menjelaskan dua jenis gletser yang berbeda dan selanjutnya masing-masing dijelaskan lebih lanjut pada paragraf berikutnya.

7. The word “massive” in line 3 is closest in meaning to
Jawab :  A → huge
Pembahasan :  Padanan kata massive adalah huge (sangat besar).

8. It can be inferred that ice sheets are so named for which of the following reasons?
Jawab  : B → They cover large areas of land.
Pembahasan : Frasa whole continents pada kalimat those massive blankets that cover whole continents appropriately called ice sheet menunjukkan bahwa daratan yang tertutup gletser mencakup wilayah yang sangat luas, hampir keseluruhan daratan.

9. According to the passage, ice shelves can be found
Jawab :  C → spreading into the ocean
Pembahasan :  Jawaban dapat ditemukan pada kalimat terakhir paragraf kedua bahwa jika ice sheet tersebar (spread out) di lautan akan terbentuk ice shelves.

10. According to the passage, where was the Cordilleran Ice Sheet thickest?
Jawab : C → Alberta
Pembahasan : Jawaban dapat ditemukan pada baris ke-8: it was about 3 kilometers deep at its thickest point in northern Alberta.

11. The word “rare” in line 11 is closest in meaning to
Jawab  :  B → unusual
Pembahasan :  Rare berarti jarang atau tidak biasa ditemukan sehingga jawaban yang paling mendekati arti dari rare adalah unusual.

12. According to the passage (paragraph 5), ice fields resemble ice caps in which of the following ways?
Jawab : B → Their flow
Pembahasan : Kalimat Mountain glaciers are typically identified by the landform that controls their flow dan dijelaskan lebih lanjut pada kalimat One form of mountain glacier that resembles an ice cap in that it flows outward in several directions is called an ice field menunjukkan bahwa pembentukan ice caps dipengaruhi oleh alirannya (their flow).

13. The word “it” in line 15 refers to
Jawab  :  A → glacier
Pembahasan :  It pada kalimat di atas merujuk pada mountain glacier atau gletser.

14. The word ”subtle” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
Jawab  :  A → slight
Pembahasan :  Padanan kata subtle adalah slight yang keduanya memiliki arti “tipis, halus, atau sedikit”.

15. All of the following are alpine glaciers EXCEPT
Jawab :  B → ice caps
Pembahasan :  Jenis alpine/mountain glacier adalah ice fields, cirque glaciers dan valley glaciers yang semuanya dipengaruhi oleh aliran dan tidak memiliki domelike cap seperti ice caps.

16. Which of the following types of glaciers does the author use to illustrate the two basic types of glaciers mentioned in line 1?
Jawab : D → Ice sheets and mountain glaciers
Pembahasan : Ada dua jenis gletser yaitu ice sheet yang mengalir keluar ke segala arah dan mountain glacier yang arah alirannya terbatas hanya di aliran tertentu.

Questions 17-26
Tools and hand bones excavated from the Swartkrans cave complex in South Africa suggest that a close relative of early humans known as Australopithecus robustus may have made and used primitive tools long before the species became extinct 1 million  Line years ago. It may even have made and used primitive tools long before humanity’s direct ancestor, Homo habilis, or “handy man,” began doing so. Homo habilis and its successor, Homo erectus, coexisted with Australopithecus robustus on the plains of South Africa for more than a million years.
The Swartkrans cave in South Africa has been under excavation since the 1940’s. The earliest fossil-containing layers of sedimentary rock in the cave date from about 1.9 million years ago and contain extensive remains of animals, primitive tools, and two or more species of apelike hominids. The key recent discovery involved bones from the hand of Australopithecus robustus, the first time such bones have been found.
The most important feature of the Australopithecus robustus hand was the pollical distal thumb tip, the last bone in the thumb. The bone had an attachment point for a “uniquely human” muscle, the flexor pollicis longus, that had previously been found only in more recent ancestors. That muscle gave Australopithecus robustutJ an opposable thumb, a feature that would allow them to grip objects, including tools. The researchers also found primitive bone and stone implements, especially digging tools, in the same layers of sediments.
Australopithecus robustus were more heavily built- more “robust” in anthropological terms-than their successors. They had broad faces, heavy jaws, and massive crushing and grinding teeth that were used for eating hard fruits, seeds, and fibrous underground plant parts. They walked upright, which would have allowed them to carry and use tools. Most experts had previously believed that Homo habilis were able to supplant Australopithecus robustus because the former’s ability to use tools gave them an innate superiority. The discovery that Australopithecus robustus also used tools means that researchers will have to seek other explanations for their extinction. Perhaps their reliance on naturally occurring plants led to their downfall as the climate became drier and cooler, or perhaps Homo habilis, with their bigger brains, were simply able tomake more sophisticated tools.

Terjemahan
Alat dan tulang tangan yang digali dari kompleks gua Swartkrans di Afrika Selatan telah menjadi informasi bahwa kerabat dekat awal manusia yang dikenal sebagai Australopithecus robustus telah dibuat dan alat primitif telah digunakan jauh sebelum spesies punah 1 juta tahun lalu. Bahkan mungkin alat primitif telah dibuat dan digunakan jauh sebelum leluhur manusia langsung, Homo habilis atau ‘manusia pembantu’ mulai melakukannya. Homo habilis dan penerusnya, Homo erectus berdampingan dengan Australopithecus robustus di dataran Afrika Selatan selama lebih dari satu juta tahun.
Gua Swartkrans di Afrika Selatan telah di bawah penggalian sejak tahun 1940-an. Fosil pertama yang mengandung lapisan batuan sedimen di gua berasal dari sekitar 1,9 juta tahun yang lalu dan berisi bangkai binatang, alat-alat primitif, dan dua atau lebih spesies hominid yang seprti kera. Penemuan baru-baru ini menemukan tulang dari tangan Australopithecus robustus, pertama kalinya seperti tulang telah ditemukan sebelumnya.
Fitur yang paling penting dari tangan Australopithecus robustus adalah ujung jari distal pollical, tulang di jempol. Tulang itu memiliki titik lanjutan untuk otot ’manusia unik ’, otot flexor pollicis longus, yang sebelumnya telah ditemukan hanya di jaman nenek-moyang yang terdahulu. Otot yang memberikan Australopithecus robustut jempol, bengkak fitur yang akan memungkinkan mereka untuk mencengkeram objek, termasuk alat. Para peneliti juga menemukan tulang primitif dan alat-alat batu, terutama menggali alat-alat, pada lapisan sedimen yang sama.

Australopithecus robustus yang lebih berat dibangun-lebih ’kuat’ dalam antropologi-daripada penerus mereka. Mereka memiliki wajah yang lebar, jaws berat, dan dapat penghancur besar dan penggilingan gigi yang digunakan untuk makan buah-buahan yang keras, benih, dan bagian berserat bawah tanah tanaman. Mereka berjalan tegak, yang akan memungkinkan mereka untuk membawa dan menggunakan alat-alat. Kebanyakan ahli sebelumnya telah percaya bahwa Homo habilis mampu menggantikan Australopithecus robustus karena lebih dahulu mampu untuk menggunakan alat-alat memberi mereka keunggulan bawaan. Penemuan bahwa Australopithecus robustus juga menggunakan alat berarti bahwa para peneliti harus mencari penjelasan lain untuk kepunahan mereka. Mungkin mereka ketergantungan pada tanaman alami yang menyebabkan kejatuhan mereka sebagai iklim menjadi pengering dan pendingin, atau mungkin Homo habilis, dengan otak mereka yang lebih besar, yang hanya dapat membuat alat-alat yang lebih canggih.

17. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that all of the following may have made and used tools EXCEPT
Jawab :  D → Australopithecus robustus’ ancestors
Pembahasan :  Paragraf di atas menjelaskan bahwa alat-alat primitif itu mulai digunakan oleh Australophitecus robustus bersama-sama dengan Homo Habilis dan penerusnya, Homo erectus. Berarti yang bukan adalah nenek moyang Australophitecus robustus.

18. The word “extensive” in line 9 is
Jawab :  A → numerous
Pembahasan :  Extensive memiliki arti luas atau dalam jumlah besar sehingga kata yang paling dekat artinya dengan kata tersebut adalah numerous.

19. Which of the following does the author mention as the most important recent discovery made in the Swartkrans cave?
Jawab : D → Hand bones
Pembahasan : Jawaban tersebut bisa dilihat pada paragraf 2 kalimat The key recent discovery involved bones from the hand of Australopithecus robustus, the first time such bones have been found yang menyatakan bahwa penemuan yang paling penting adalah hand bones.

20. What does the third paragraph ‘mainly discuss?
Jawab : A → Features of Australopithecus robustus’ hand
Pembahasan : Jawaban sangat jelas ditemukan pada kalimat pertama paragraf tersebut yaitu membahas tentang ciri (feature) dari Australopithecus robustus.

21. It can be inferred from the description in the last paragraph that Australopithecus robustus was so named because of the species’
Jawab : C → build
Pembahasan : Paragraf 4 kalimat pertama, Australopithecus robustus were more heavily built-more “robust” in anthropological terms-than their successors menjelaskan bahwa kata robustus berasal dari robust, istilah antropologi yang merujuk pada perawakan atau bentuk fisik (build) dengan ciri-ciri yang dijelaskan pada kalimat selanjutnya.

22. The word “supplant” in line 22 is closest in meaning to
Jawab :  B → displace
Pembahasan :  Kata supplant memiliki arti “menggantikan” sehingga kata yang paling dekat artinya dengan kata tersebut pada pilihan yang tersedia adalah displace (menggantikan).

23. The word “them” in line 23 refers to
Jawab :  B → Homo habilis
Pembahasan :  Them pada kalimat tersebut merujuk pada subjek yang disebutkan sebelumnya yaitu Homo habilis.

24. What does the author suggest is unclear about Australopithecus robustus?
Jawab   : D → Why they became extinct
Pembahasan : Jawaban tersebut bisa ditemukan pada paragraf terakhir kalimat The discovery that Australopithecus robustus also used tools means that researchers will have to seek other explanations for their extinction yang menyarankan kepada para peneliti untuk mencari sebab-sebab lain kepunahan jenis manusia primitif tersebut.

25. The phrase “reliance on” in line 24 is closest in meaning to
Jawab :  B → dependence on
Pembahasan :  Reliance on memiliki arti kebergantungan yang bersesuaian dengan kata dependence on (ketergantungan).

26. Where in the passage does the author mention the materials from which tools were made?
Jawab :  C → Lines 15-17
Pembahasan : Penulis menyebutkan beberapa alat serta asal bahannya pada baris 15-17: “…an opposable thumb, a feature that would allow them to grip objects, including tools. The researchers also found primitive bone and stone implements, especially digging tools, in the same layers of sediments.” Yaitu bentuk tulang yang memungkinkan mereka mencengkeram alat dan alat dari batu untuk peralatan menggali.

Questions 27-38
The first two decades of this century were dominated by the microbe hunters. These hunters had tracked down one after another of the microbes responsible for the most dreaded scourges of many centuries: tuberculosis, cholera, diphtheria. But there, remained some terrible diseases for which no microbe could be incriminated: scurvy, pellagra, rickets, beriberi. Then it was discovered that these diseases were caused by the lack of vitamins, a trace substance in the diet. The diseases could be prevented or cured by consuming foods that contained the vitamins. And so in the decades of the 1920’s and 1930’s, nutrition became a science and the vitamin hunters replaced the microbe hunters.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s, biochemists strived to learn why each of the vitamins was essential for health. They discovered that key enzymes in metabolism depend on one or another of the vitamins as coenzymes to perform the chemistry that provides cells with energy for growth and function. Now, these enzyme hunters occupied center stage.
You are aware that the enzyme hunters have been replaced by a new breed of hunters who are tracking genes-the blueprints for each of the enzymes-and are discovering the defective genes that cause inherited diseases-diabetes, cystic fibrosis. These gene hunters, or genetic engineers, use recombinant DNA technology to identify and clone genes and introduce them into bacterial cells and plants to create factories for the massive production of hormones and vaccines for medicine and for better crops for agriculture. Biotechnology has become a multibillion-dollar industry.
In view of the inexorable progress in science, we can expect that the gene hunters will be replaced in the spotlight. When and by whom? Which kind of hunter will dominate the scene in the last decade of our waning century and in the early decades of the next? I wonder whether the hunters who will occupy the spotlight will be neurobiologists who apply the techniques of the enzyme and gene hunters to the functions of the brain: What to call them? The head hunters. I will return to them later.

Terjemahan
Dua dekade pertama di abad ini didominasi oleh pemburu mikroba. Pemburu ini telah melacak satu demi satu mikroba yang bertanggung jawab untuk penyakit paling ditakuti selama berabad-abad: tuberkulosis, kolera, difteri. Tapi masih ada beberapa penyakit mengerikan yang mikroba tidak bisa menyerang: penyakit kudis, pellagra, rickets, beri-beri. Kemudian ditemukan bahwa penyakit ini disebabkan oleh kekurangan vitamin, bahan makanan untuk diet. Penyakit ini dapat dicegah atau disembuhkan dengan mengkonsumsi makanan yang mengandung vitamin. Jadi pada dekade tahun 1920-an dan tahun 1930-an, gizi menjadi sebuah ilmu dan pemburu vitamin digantikan pemburu mikroba.
Di tahun 1940-an dan 1950-an, ilmuwan berusaha untuk mempelajari mengapa setiap vitamin sangat penting untuk kesehatan. Mereka menemukan bahwa kunci enzim dalam metabolisme tergantung pada satu sama lain dari vitamin sebagai koenzim untuk menghasilkan kimia yang menyediakan sel dengan energi untuk pertumbuhan dan fungsinya. Sekarang, pemburu enzim ini menduduki peringkat atas.
Kalian menyadari bahwa pemburu enzim digantikan oleh generasi baru para pemburu yang melacak gen- biru untuk masing-masing enzim- dan menemukan kecacatan gen penyebab penyakit-diabetes, cystic fibrosis. Pemburu gen ini, atau genetik insinyur, menggunakan teknologi kombinasi DNA untuk mengidentifikasi dan mengkloning gen dalam sel bakteri dan tanaman untuk membuat pabrik-pabrik untuk produksi besar-besaran hormon dan vaksin untuk obat dan untuk tanaman yang lebih baik untuk pertanian. Bioteknologi telah menjadi multibillion-dolar industri.
Dari pandangan yang tak terelakkan tentang kemajuan di bidang ilmu pengetahuan ini, kita berharap gen pemburu akan diganti secepatnya. Kapan dan oleh siapa? Jenis hunter yang mana yang akan mendominasi dalam dekade terakhir abad ini dan pada awal dekade berikutnya? Aku bertanya-tanya apakah para pemburu yang akan menempati sorotan akan neurobiologists yang menerapkan teknik enzim dan gen pemburu fungsi otak: Disebut apa mereka itu? Kepala pemburu. Aku akan kembali kepada mereka nanti.

27. What is the main topic of the passage?
Jawab : C → The progress of modem medical research
Pembahasan : Ide pokok bacaan di atas adalah perkembangan penelitian medis modern, mulai dari microbe hunters, enzyme hunters hingga gene hunters yang masing-masing selanjutnya dijelaskan dengan lebih detil.

28. The word “which” in line 3 refers to
Jawab :  A → diseases
Pembahasan :  Which pada kalimat tersebut merujuk pada penyakit-penyakit serius (terrible diseases) yang tidak bisa dilawan oleh mikroba.

29. The word “incriminated” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
Jawab :  B → blamed
Pembahasan :  Incriminate memiliki arti “menyalahkan” sehingga yang paling tepat di antara pilihan tersebut adalah blamed yang memiliki makna yang sama.

30. Which of the following can be cured by a change in diet?
Jawab : D → Pellagra
Pembahasan : Berdasarkan paragraf pertama baris 4, beberapa penyakit yang dapat disembuhkan melalui perubahan pola makan yang lebih sehat, yaitu makanan yang banyak mengandung vitamin seperti scurvy, pellagra, rickets dan beriberi.

31. The word “strived” in line 8 is closest in meaning to
Jawab :  B → tried
Pembahasan :  Strived memiliki kesamaan arti dengan attempt, try, dan make effort yang semuanya berarti berusaha atau berjuang.

32. How do vitamins influence health?
Jawab : A → They are necessary for some enzymes to function.
Pembahasan : Fungsi vitamin terhadap kesehatan tubuh adalah untuk membantu enzim (sebagai coenzyme) untuk menghasilkan kimia yang meyediakan sel dengan energi untuk pertumbuhan dan fungsinya. Penjelasan ini dapat dilihat pada baris ke 9-11.

33. In the third paragraph, the author compares cells that have been genetically altered by biotechnicians to
Jawab :  B → factories
Pembahasan :  Jawaban bisa ditemukan pada baris 14-17 yang membandingkan sel-sel yang dihasilkan oleh ahli biologi melalui recombinant DNA dengan sel-sel bakteri dan tanaman yang menciptakan pabrik-pabrik untuk memproduksi hormon dan vaksin.

34. The word “them” in line 15 refers to
Jawab :  C → genes
Pembahasan :  Them pada kalimat tersebut mengacu pada gen yang diidentifikasi dan dikloning melalui rekombinan DNA.

35. The phrase “occupy the spotlight” in line 21 is closest in meaning to
Jawab :  A → receive the most attention
Pembahasan :  Occupy the spotlight memiliki arti “mendapatkan tempat yang dapat menarik perhatian banyak orang” sehingga ungkapan yang paling dekat untuk menggantikan frasa tersebut adalah receive the most attention.

36. The author implies that the most important medical research topic of the future will be
Jawab :  A → the functions of the brain
Pembahasan :  Jawaban dapat ditemukan pada paragraf terkahir yang menyatakan bahwa penulis berasumsi pada masa yang akan datang, yang menjadi sorotan utama adalah mereka yang menerapkan teknik pemburu-pemburu sebelumnya dengan fungsi otak sehingga fungsi otak diramalkan mejadi isu utama nantinya.

37. Which of the following best describes the author’stone in the last paragraph of the passage?
Jawab :  B → Speculative
Pembahasan :  Nada yang tersirat dari pernyataan-pernyataannya adalah spekulatif. Ini jelas terlihat dari pernyataannya pada paragraf terakhir di empat baris terakhir bahwa ia pun ingin tahu mana nantinya yang akan menguasai isu penelitian medis. Di sini ia memprediksi bahwa mereka yang mampu menggabungkan temuan yang sudah ada dan mengaitkannya dengan otak manusia. Namun ia belum bisa mengambil kesimpulan dengan pasti karena belum terjadi.

38.With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?
Jawab : A → The focus of medical research will change in the next two decades.
Pembahasan : Pernyataan penulis pada kalimat Which kind of hunter will dominate the scene in the last decade of our waning century and in the early decades of the next? menyiratkan bahwa ia berpendapat bahwa akan terjadi perubahan fokus penelitian medis pada dua dekade mendatang yang akan mendominasi ranah penelitian.

Questions 39-50
In the mid-nineteenth century, the United States had tremendous natural resources that could be exploited in order to develop heavy industry. Most of the raw materials that are valuable in the manufacture of machinery, transportation facilities, and consumer goods lay ready to be worked into wealth. Iron, coal, and oil-the basic ingredients of industrial growth-were plentiful and needed only the application of technical expertise, organizational skill, and labor.
One crucial development in this movement toward industrialization was the growth of the railroads. The railway network expanded rapidly until the railroad map of the United States looked like a spider’s web, with the steel filaments connecting all important sources of raw materials, their places of manufacture, and their centers of distribution. The railroads contributed to the industrial growth not only by connecting these major centers, but also by themselves consuming enormous amounts of fuel, iron, and coal.
Many factors influenced emerging modes of production. For example, machine tools, the tools used to make goods, were steadily improved in the latter part of the nineteenth century-always with an eye to speedier production and lower unit costs. The products of the factories were rapidly absorbed by the growing cities that sheltered the workers and the distributors. The increased urban population was nourished by the increased farm production that, in turn, was made more productive by the use of the new farm machinery. American agricultural production kept up with the urban demand and still had surpluses for sale to the industrial centers of Europe.
The labor that ran the factories and built the railways was recruited in part from American farm areas where people were being displaced by farm machinery, in part from Asia, and in part from Europe. Europe now began to send tides of immigrants from eastern and southern Europe-most of whom were originally poor farmers but who settled in American industrial cities. The money to finance this tremendous expansion of the American economy still came from European financiers for the most part, but the Americans were approaching the day when their expansion could be financed in their own “money market.”

Terjemahan
Pada pertengahan abad kesembilan belas, Amerika Serikat memiliki sumber daya alam besar yang dapat dieksploitasi untuk mengembangkan industri berat. Sebagian besar bahan baku yang berharga dalam pembuatan mesin, fasilitas transportasi, dan barang-barang konsumen siap untuk bekerja. Besi, batubara dan minyak- bahan dasar pertumbuhan industri-yang berlimpah dan diperlukan hanya oleh keahlian teknis, keterampilan organisasi dan tenaga kerja.
Salah satu perkembangan penting dalam gerakan menuju industrialisasi adalah pembuatan rel kereta api. Jaringan kereta api berkembang pesat sampai peta kereta api Amerika Serikat tampak seperti seekor jaring laba-laba, dengan filamen baja yang menghubungkan semua sumber bahan baku penting, tempat pembuatan dan pusat-pusat distribusi. Rel kereta api memberikan kontribusi terhadap pertumbuhan industri yang tidak hanya dengan menghubungkan pusat-pusat utama ini, tetapi juga dengan mengkonsumsi jumlah besar bahan bakar, besi, dan batu bara.
Banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi munculnya modus produksi. Sebagai contoh, mesin perkakas, alat-alat yang digunakan untuk membuat barang-barang, terus ditingkatkan di bagian terakhir abad ke-19 dengan pandangan untuk memproduksi yang lebih cepat dan biaya unit yang lebih rendah. Produk-produk dari pabrik dengan cepat diserap oleh kota-kota berkembang yang lebih banyak  pekerja dan distributor. Peningkatan populasi urban dipelihara oleh peningkatan produksi pertanian yang, pada gilirannya, dibuat lebih produktif dengan menggunakan mesin pertanian baru. Produksi pertanian Amerika terus meningkatkan permintaan perkotaan dan masih memiliki surplus dijual ke pusat-pusat industri Eropa.
Tenaga kerja yang mengendalikan pabrik dan membangun jalur kereta api direkrut sebagian dari daerah pertanian Amerika di mana orang-orang yang digantikan oleh mesin pertanian, sebagian dari Asia, dan sebagian dari Eropa. Eropa sekarang dimulai untuk mengirim gelombang imigran dari Timur dan Eropa Selatan -sebagian besar adalah petani yang awalnya miskin tapi yang menetap di kota-kota industri Amerika. Uang untuk membiayai ekspansi ini luar biasa, ekonomi Amerika masih berasal dari dana Eropa untuk sebagian besar, tapi Amerika yang mendekati hari ketika perluasan bisa dibiayai dengan ‘uang pasar sendiri.

39. What does the passage mainly discuss?
Jawab : C → Factors that affected industrialization in the United States
Pembahasan : Bacaan tersebut terutama membahas faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi industrialisasi di AS yang antara lain mencakup perkemabangan rel kereta api, peralatan mesin dan tenaga kerja.

40. The word “ingredients” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
Jawab :  D → components
Pembahasan :  Kata ingredients mempunyai arti bahan, unsur, komponen, atau elemen yang membentuk sesuatu. Maka jawaban yang paling tepat adalah components.

41. Why does the author mention “a spider’s web” in line 8?
Jawab : B → To describe the complex structure of the railway system
Pembahasan : Istilah spider’s web menggambarkan rumitnya susunan sistem rel kereta api pada waktu itu seperti jaring laba-laba.

42. The word “themselves” in line 10 refers to
Jawab :  C → railroads
Pembahasan :  Them pada kalimat tersebut mengacu pada jalan kereta api itu sendiri yang berkontribusi tidak hanya dalam menghubungkan kota-kota penting tetapi juga karena kereta itu sendiri mengonsumsi bahan bakar.

43. According to the passage, all of the following were true of railroads in the United States in the nineteenth century EXCEPT that
Jawab :  D → they used relatively small quantities of natural resources.
Pembahasan :  Berdasarkan informasi pada paragraf 2, jalur kereta api berkembang sangat cepat hingga menyerupai jaring laba-laba, menghubungkan pusat-pusat kota industri di negara itu serta berkontribusi besar dalam pertumbuhan industri.  Oleh karena itu jawaban yang tidak benar adalah pilihan D karena berlawanan dengan fakta yang ada.

44. According to the passage, what was one effect of the improvement of machine tools?
Jawab : A → Lower manufacturing costs
Pembahasan : Karena perkembangan peralatan mesin yang mulai menggantikan tenaga manusia menjadikan biaya produksi mejadi lebih rendah.

45. According to the passage, who were the biggest consumers of manufactured products?
Jawab :  C → City dwellers
Pembahasan :  Kalimat The increased urban population was nourished by the increased farm production that, in turn, was made more productive by the use of the new farm machinery menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara pesatnya pertumbuhan penduduk perkotaan dan produksi peralatan yang dibutuhkan oleh penduduk tersebut. Dengan kata lain permintaan terbesar berasal dari penduduk kota yang terus berkembang.

46. The word “nourished” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
Jawab :  B → fed
Pembahasan :  Kata nourished memiliki kesamaan arti dengan fed yang bermakna disuplai, disediakan atau dipenuhi.

47. Which of the following is NOT true of United States farmers in the nineteenth century?
Jawab : B → They were unable to produce sufficient food for urban areas
Pembahasan : Pengaruh dari industrialisasi adalah peningkatan produksi karena perkembangan peralatan yang ada hingga bisa menjualnya ke daratan Eropa. Namun hal ini juga berdampak pada pengurangan tenaga kerja yang telah digantikan oleh mesin dengan perbandingan biaya produksi yang jauh lebih rendah. Oleh karena itu jawaban yang tidak sesuai dengan kenyataan di atas adalah jawaban B.

48. According to the passage, what did the United States supply to European cities?
Jawab : D → Agricultural produce
Pembahasan : Jawaban dapat ditemukan di kalimat terakhir paragraf 3 bahwa American agricultural production kept up with the urban demand and still had surpluses for sale to the industrial centers of Europe.

49. The word “ran” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
Jawab :  A → operated
Pembahasan :  Run mempunyai arti menjalankan atau mengoperasikan sehingga jawaban yang paling tepat adalah operated.

50. Where in the passage does the author mention the financial aspect of industrial expansion?
Jawab :  D → Lines 22-25
Pembahasan :  Pada baris 22-25 dijelaskan bahwa perkembangan industri telah merambah sampai daratan Eropa dengan adanya arus migrasi di daratan itu dan berkontribusi besar dalam menyokong pembiayaan perkembangan industri di Amerika karena sebagai konsumen mayoritas bagi negara itu.

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